Keg Web

Views

While generic Flask views will certainly work in this framework, Keg provides a BaseView that applies a certain amount of magic around route and blueprint setup. BaseView is based on Flask’s MethodView. Best practice is to set up a blueprint and attach the views to it via the blueprint attribute. Be aware, BaseView will set up some route, endpoint, and template location defaults, but these can be configured if needed.

Blueprint Setup

Adding views to a blueprint is accomplished via the blueprint attribute on the view. Note, BaseView magic kicks in when the class is created, so assigning the blueprint later on will not currently have the desired effect.

import flask from keg.web import BaseView

blueprint = flask.Blueprint(‘routing’, __name__)

class VerbRouting(BaseView):

blueprint = blueprint

def get(self):
return ‘method get’

Once the blueprint is created, you must attach it to the app via the use_blueprints app attribute:

from keg.app import Keg from my_app.views import blueprint

class MyApp(Keg):
import_name = ‘myapp’ use_blueprints = (blueprint, )

Blueprints take some parameters for URL prefix and template path. BaseView will respect these when generating URLs and finding templates:

blueprint = flask.Blueprint(
‘custom’, __name__, template_folder=’../templates/specific-path’, url_prefix=’/tanagra’)
class BlueprintTest(BaseView):

# template “blueprint_test.html” will be expected in specific-path # endpoint is custom.blueprint-test # URL is /tanagra/blueprint-test blueprint = blueprint

def get(self):
return self.render()

Template Discovery

To avoid requiring the developer to configure all the things, BaseView will attempt to discover the correct template for a view, based on the view class name. Generally, this is a camel-case to underscore-notation conversion. Blueprint name is included in the path, unless the blueprint has its own template_path defined.

  • class MyBestView in blueprint named “public” -> <app>/templates/public/my_best_view.html
  • class View2 in blueprint named “other” with template path “foo” -> <app>/foo/view2.html

A view may be given a template_name attribute to override the default filename, although the same path is used for discovery:

class TemplateOverride(BaseView):

blueprint = blueprint template_name = ‘my-special-template.html’

def get(self):
return self.render()

URL and Endpoint Calculation

BaseView has calc_url and calc_endpoint class methods which will allow the developer to avoid hard-coding those types of values throughout the code. These methods will both produce the full URL/endpoint, including the blueprint prefix (if any).

Route Generation

BaseView will, by default, create rules for views on their respective blueprints. Generally, this is based on the view class name as a camel-case to dash-notation conversion:

  • class MyBestView in blueprint named “public”: /my-best-view -> public.my-best-view
  • class View2 in blueprint named “other” with URL prefix “foo”: /foo/view2 -> other.view2

Note that BaseView is a MethodView implementation, so methods named get, post, etc. will be respected as the appropriate targets in the request/response cycle.

A view may be given a url attribute to override the default:

class RouteOverride(BaseView):

blueprint = blueprint url = ‘/something-other-than-the-default’

def get(self):
return self.render()

See keg_apps/web/views/routing.py for other routing possibilities that BaseView supports.

Class View Lifecycle

Keg views use Flask’s dispatch_request to call several methods walking a view through its response cycle. As the methods progress, assumptions may be built for access, availability, etc. Many of these methods will not normally be present on a view.

The view lifecycle is as follows:

  • process_calling_args
    • Gather arguments from the route definition and the query string
    • If expected_qs_args is set on the view, look for these arguments in the query string
    • URL arguments from the route definition have precedence over GET args in the query string
    • Arguments are processed once, then stored on the view
  • pre_auth
    • Meant for actions that should take place before a user/session has been verified
    • Assumptions: calling args
  • check_auth
    • Meant to verify the user/session has access to this resource
    • Failure at this point should take appropriate action in the method itself (403, 401, etc.)
    • Extensions such as keg-auth leverage this method to insert permission-based authorization into the view cycle
    • Assumptions: calling args
  • pre_loaders
    • Authentication/authorization has passed, but we haven’t loaded any related view dependencies
    • Assumptions: calling args, auth
  • Loader methods
    • Any method on the view ending with _loader is called with args
    • Return value of the method is stored with the calling args, keyed by the method name
      • e.g. a method named record_loader will set a value in calling args for record
    • Methods folliwng this in the lifecycle can use the newly-set arg
    • If no value is returned, Keg assumes a required dependency could not be loaded and returns a 404 response
    • Order of execution of a view’s loaders may not be assumed
    • Assumptions: calling args, auth
  • pre_method
    • Ideal method for running code shared by all response methods (e.g. get, post, etc.)
    • Assumptions: calling args, auth, loader args
  • Responding method
    • The method used here is generally the lowercase of the request method (e.g. get, post, etc.)
    • If the request method is HEAD, but there is no head method, Keg looks for get instead
    • This method may return the view’s response
    • Assumptions: calling args, auth, loader args
  • If responding method does not return a reponse:
    • I.e. the responding method returned something falsy that isn’t an empty string
    • pre_render
      • Assumptions: calling args, auth, loader args
    • render
      • Returns a response object
      • By default, renders the template with args assigned on the view
      • See Template Discovery above
  • pre_response
    • A response has been generated, but has not been sent yet
    • The response is included as the _response arg for this method
    • The response should not be assumed to be mutable
    • If a different response should be sent, return that response from this method
    • Assumptions: calling args, auth, loader args, response (from responding method or render)

Documentation

class keg.web.BaseView(responding_method=None)[source]

Base class for all Keg views to inherit from. BaseView automatically calculates and installs routing, templating, and responding methods for HTTP verb named functions.

# Example usage of `keg.web.BaseView`
import flask
from keg.web import BaseView

core_bp = flask.Blueprint('core', __name__)

class FooView(BaseView):
    url = '/foo'
    template_name = 'foo.html'
    blueprint = core_bp

    def get(self):
        context = {
            "bar": "baz",
        }

        return flask.render_template(self.calc_template_name(), **context)

assign(key, value)[source]
classmethod assign_blueprint(blueprint)[source]
auto_assign = ()
blueprint = None
calc_class_fname()[source]
classmethod calc_endpoint(use_blueprint=True)[source]
calc_responding_method()[source]
calc_template_name()[source]
classmethod calc_url(use_blueprint=True)[source]
call_loaders(calling_args)[source]
check_auth()[source]
dispatch_request(**kwargs)[source]

Subclasses have to override this method to implement the actual view function code. This method is called with all the arguments from the URL rule.

expected_qs_args = []
classmethod init_blueprint(rules)[source]
classmethod init_routes()[source]
process_auto_assign()[source]
process_calling_args(urlargs)[source]
render()[source]
require_authentication = False
template_name = None
url = None
keg.web.redirect(endpoint, *args, **kwargs)[source]